ICT is used to support and automate case management practices of courts. This use of ICT is here referred to as electronic case management systems. These systems can be applied at different levels of sophistication, on different types of caseflows and with different components. This article introduces the term "differentiated electronic case management systems", since the development and deployment of these electronic systems differs widely in level of sophistication and provided functionality and since these systems are capable of supporting the contingent use of differentiated case management. An overview of functionality of electronic case management systems found in research is given, using a distinction in four components. The lens of the contingency theory is used to discuss what relevance the different types of caseflows, components and levels of sophistication have for the differentiated use and development of electronic case management systems. Also discussed is what courts can do to harvest potential benefits of electronic case management systems.